-by Krista Taylor
Anyone connected to education today has heard the following espoused as best practices:
- Project-Based Learning
- Differentiated Instruction
- Social-Emotional Learning
- Use of Manipulatives and Hands-On Activities
- Real-World Experiences
- High Expectations
These are cutting-age, modern instructional practices, right?
She was a visionary, a pioneer, and a barrier breaker. It is only now, as much of her methodology is being embraced as research-proven practice in traditional, non-Montessori classrooms, that her brilliance is being fully revealed.
Maria Montessori defied convention from the very beginning. She was born in Italy in 1870 during a time when women’s roles were restricted. Despite the discouragement of her father, she dreamed of becoming a doctor.
Initially denied acceptance to medical school, she was eventually allowed to enroll; obtaining admission, however, was only the first of the challenges she would face. She endured hostility and harassment from some of her classmates and professors. Additionally, because it was considered untoward for women and men to be in the presence of a naked body together, in order to do the requisite cadaver dissections, she was required to work alone and at night. Despite this adversity, she graduated from medical school in 1896 and became Italy’s first female physician.
Her early practice involved working with children with disabilities, and it was this work that ultimately drew her to education. She was a keen observer and data collector. She deduced that children are innately drawn to learning and discovery. From this, she began developing manipulatives to support student learning. Anyone who has had the privilege of witnessing division of fractions using the skittles, or multiplication of polynomials using the binomial or trinomial cube (a material that is first introduced to three year olds) understands the magic that transpires when the “what we do” of mathematic algorithms becomes supported by the “why we do it” that comes with concrete comprehension. I have seen many adults become wide-eyed when the “flip the second fraction and multiply” rule for fraction division becomes clear once demonstrated using Montessori materials, or the complex algebraic concepts built into the binomial cube and trinomial cube is revealed. One of the most quintessential Montessori materials is the moveable alphabet, which allows very young children to successfully tackle the complex tasks of reading and writing, and to find pride and joy in doing so.
In 1906, Montessori was invited to oversee a school for children from low-income families in Rome’s inner city. It was here that she determined that her educational methods were equally effective for children without disabilities. From this work, the Montessori Method was established. This, however, was only the beginning. As noted at the beginning of this article, many of the “newest” educational practices have roots in Montessori’s model. While Montessori education is far too complex of a subject to fully describe here, there are five fundamental components, which capture much of the philosophy. These were revolutionary ideas when Montessori first introduced them; today they are standard practice in most well run classrooms – traditional and Montessori, alike.
Beauty and Atmosphere
- Natural or soft lighting
- Conscientious use of color
- Well-organized/not cluttered
- Inclusion of plants and/or animals
- Well-maintained materials and furnishings
- Decorated spaces that do not create distractions
- Variety of work spaces: tables, individual desks, floor, counters, etc.
- Student supplies readily accessible
Structure and Order
- Checklists/Work Plans
- Clear expectations for academics and behavior
- Directly communicated and reinforced routines and procedures
- Structured assignments which provide models, rubrics, guidelines, and control for error
Freedom with Responsibility
- Choice in assignments related to level of difficulty and/or method of presentation
- Development of self-monitoring through use of controls,checklists,planners, etc.
- Student-led conferences
- Classroom jobs
- Morning meeting roles
Reality and Nature
- Real-world experiences
- Engagement with the natural world
- Development of life skills
- Use of tools appropriate to the task and developmental level
Grace and Courtesy
- Classroom jobs
- Responsibility for public space clean-up
- Classroom Meetings which include Greetings and Acknowledgments
- Character Strength Development (normalization and valorization)
Many of today’s best practice innovations aren’t innovations at all. The Montessori Method has been educating children this way for 100 years.