Co-Teaching: A Story of Arranged Marriage

-by Krista Taylor

When we hear of marriage proposals, we often get misty eyed, imagining someone down on one knee, holding an expensive piece of jewelry, and eloquently making declarations of true love.

Only one of my marriage proposals has been like this. The other three were arranged marriages, and rather than occurring on the beach, or, better yet, at the foot of the Eiffel Tower, these proposals took place in an administrator’s office. The most recent one sounded like this, “Next year we’ll have a new team of young teachers; since you are more experienced, I need you to join them as a co-teaching inclusionist.”

See? It definitely left something to be desired in the romance department.

Most schools include a variety of teaming structures, and there are few educators who don’t serve on at least one type of team in their building. However, co-teaching is it’s own special form of teaming relationship.

It really is a lot like an arranged marriage. Two adults are responsible for a group of children – a little bit like a family unit. Co-teachers spend a lot of time together –during the school day and in time spent planning together outside of school hours. Co-teachers share classroom living space, and co-teachers are dependent on each other to share the responsibilities of the team. Like a marriage, co-teachers must learn to work together, and to tolerate each other’s idiosyncrasies.

What Is Co-Teaching

Co-teaching is defined as two teachers who co-plan, co-instruct, and co-assess academic content provided to a single group of students at the same time. Most often, but not always, co-teaching pairs are comprised of a general education teacher and an intervention specialist (special education teacher).

In this model, co-teaching is a means of providing special education support within the general education setting. This is aligned with the goal of increasing access to rigorous curriculum, and with the provision of instruction in the Least Restrictive Environment. These are lofty goals, and the work isn’t easy.

“The biggest challenge for educators is in deciding to share the role that has traditionally been individual: to share the goals, decisions, classroom instruction, responsibility for students, assessment of student learning, problem solving, and classroom management. The teachers must begin to think of it as our class.”  (Ripley, in Cramer, 2006)

not easy

Why Co-Teach?

Like marriage, there are many benefits to co-teaching for both the adults and children involved.

The pairing of a general education teacher and a special educator brings together two critical skill sets for effective classroom functioning.

While not set in stone, typically the general educator is the content knowledge expert, has experience with whole-group classroom management, possesses knowledge of student backgrounds, and is familiar with expected pacing guideline.

The special educator tends to have expertise in knowledge of the learning process, individualization of instruction, understanding of legal issues and required paperwork, and maintains a focus on learning for mastery.

Specific benefits for students include:

  • Establishment of a respect for differences
  • Creation of a sense of belonging
  • Improved self-esteem
  • Increased attention
  • Provision of peer-models
  • Development of broader friendships

Specific benefits for teachers include:

  • Enhanced instructional knowledge base
  • Collaborative problem solving
  • Shared responsibility
  • Increased grouping options
  • Engaged Teamwork
  • Heightened creativity
  • Ability to provide individualized instruction

Models of co-teaching modelsCo-Teaching

There are six basic models of co-teaching. Each model has specific benefits and rationales for implementation. The determination of which model to use depends on the standard being taught, your goals for your lesson, and the needs of your students.

The Primary 3 Models

Team Teaching

This is often the model that people picture when co-teaching is discussed. In team teaching, two teachers partner to share the same instruction for a single group of students. This model is best used when there is a clear benefit to having two people provide content – examples include: two ways to solve a math problem, instruction which is enhanced by two different perspectives, lessons involving compare and contrast, etc. While it is tempting to over-rely on this method because it is fun to teach with another adult, it should only be used when having two teachers providing the instruction enhances student learning.

Parallel Teaching

In parallel teaching, each teacher provides instruction to approximately half of the students. The resulting reduction in student:teacher ratio provides the powerful benefit of small-group instruction for all students. Additionally these groups can be carefully constructed to best facilitate differentiated instruction. There are times when parallel teaching is best done using heterogeneous groupings (an example of this is small-group discussion), and other times when it is best used for homogenous groupings (for example — new content instruction provided at different levels of complexity).

Station Teaching

Having two teachers present in the classroom enhances the benefits of station teaching. It allows for 2 teacher-led stations, or for 1 teacher to lead a station while the other teacher monitors on-task behavior and supports station transitions.

The Supporting 3 Models

Alternate Teaching:

In this model, one teacher provides instruction to the group, while the other teacher works with a smaller group to provide pre-teaching, re-teaching, or remediation. The intention of this model is that the pull-out group instruction is brief, and is carefully timed to allow for the least impact due to missed content. Once the support has been provided, the students return to the whole-group setting.

One Teach: One Collect Data

While this model may be most frequently used to prepare for special education paperwork, this does not have to be the case. There is tremendous value in all kinds of data collection – including data collection of effective teaching practices. When co-teaching partnerships are grounded in trust and collaboration, they are the perfect relationships in which to collect and analyze potentially hard truths about instructional practices.

One Teach: One Assist

This model is the most frequently used, and the least effective for student learning. While it is often the place where co-teaching teams begin their practice, it should be moved away from as soon as possible. It can be a helpful model to use while teachers learn how to blend their work, since it allows both teachers to learn each others’ teaching styles, expectations, and routines and procedures. It also provides time for the special educator to develop comfort with the instructed content, and for the general educator to learn effective strategies for working with students with disabilities.

“Ms. Taylor, you must be the smartest teacher because you teach both math and language arts.”

Those are words, spoken by a general education student, that I will treasure forever — not because of the reference to being “the smartest,” but because it so clearly demonstrated that, to my students, I am a content teacher – not someone who just helps out in the classroom, not the “IEP teacher,” or the teacher of “those students,” but, quite simply, one of the math teachers and one of the language arts teachers. Along with the acceptance of the special education teacher as just another classroom teacher, comes the mirror belief that the students who receive special education services are just regular members of the classroom community. There is no doubt in my mind that both of these pieces are the direct result of the implementation of co-teaching models in the classrooms I serve.

Getting Started with Co-Teaching

While the benefits of co-teaching are profound, there are many common pitfalls.

collaboration cartoon

Like a marriage, effective co-teaching takes time and effort. Sharing your livelihood with someone else requires the development of trust. In strong co-teaching partnerships, instruction is so fluid that teachers can often finish each others’ sentences, and an observer in the classroom might not be able to recognize which teacher carries which job title, but this ideal does not happen overnight. Co-teaching teams should expect three years of teaming before the model reaches full implementation. There are some ways to make this happen more smoothly.

  • Co-plan – I cannot state this strongly enough: It is not co-teaching, if you are not co-planning
  • Work with administration to establish common planning time for co-teaching pairs
  • Present a united front
    • Put both teachers names on the door, on assignments, and in parent communication
    • When referencing the class, identify both educators as its teachers
    • If possible, allow both teachers equal access to the electronic grade book
    • Establish shared expectations and procedures
  • Share the load. This includes:
    • Planning
    • Creating materials
    • Providing accommodations and modifications
    • Grading
    • Parent phone calls
    • Classroom set-up
  • Don’t try to go too fast
    • Start with baby steps and then challenge yourselves to extend your practice
    • When challenges present themselves, don’t give up! Problem solve and make an adjustment in practice.

Good luck! “This could be the beginning of a beautiful friendship.”

Collaboration: The Tale of a Team

-by Krista Taylor

 

Late one summer night, my teaching partner and I were working frantically at my dining room table. The school year was long over, but as part of my summer work, I had agreed to restructure a major assignment. I had four days to go from a big idea to a finalized document.

I called Beau seeking sympathy. His response was priceless: “Let me help you with that. We have different strengths; it’s what we do. We’re a team.”

Beau had no obligation to assist me, but we are a team, and that’s a powerful concept.

collaboration

Collaboration is a critical component of the successful functioning of modern education. Teaching in isolation behind a closed classroom door is no longer an effective model. The demands of accountability, increased rigor, and meeting the needs of each student, require teachers to work together.

Collaboration is not just a buzzword. Documented gains result from well-conducted collaboration.

“The low-income districts and schools that have demonstrated the greatest improvement in student outcomes are generally characterized by deep collaboration between administrators and teachers.”  (Anrig, Greg. “Why Collaboration is Vital to Creating Effective Schools.” The Washington Post. May 2, 2013.)

While there are many forms of collaboration, the longest term, and perhaps most impactful, collaboration comes through teaming.

Gamble is a “team-based school.” We have all kinds of teams: departmental teams, vertical teams, co-teaching teams, building leadership teams, grade-level teams, and community teams that share a common group of students.

And while two (or more) heads are better than one, effective teaming is neither a simple nor an easy process. Simply being part of a team is not the same as collaborating. True collaboration, true teaming, is working together to effect change.

Bruce Tuckman identified a common process that teams cycle through as they become highly functional. It is important to note that these stages are not a linear progression; rather, teams can regularly revisit any of the stages, often triggered by a change or disruption.

Stage 1: Forming.

This is often thought of as a honeymoon period. Individuals are just getting to know each other, and there is little conflict.

When Beau, Kim, and I first became a team, the beginning was easy. Since I was the most experienced member of the team, they mostly just agreed with me. I had to remember to push them to share their ideas and opinions.

 Stage 2: Storming.

Stress increases, arguments arise, and things become more difficult.

My team experienced this when we revamped our grading policy. What began as a philosophical conversation, rapidly developed into a significant conflict. Kim wanted a complete overhaul. Beau was resistant. I served as a mediator between the two. At one point, the conversation grew so hot that Beau had to take a walk to cool off. We ended our discussion that day with no resolution.  The next morning, each of them had drafted a conciliatory plan based on the other person’s perspective. The argument continued, but they had both shifted to arguing for the very thing that they had been against! As soon as I pointed this out, we laughed, and got down to the business of over-hauling our policy.

 Stage 3: Norming. In this stage, cooperation and a focus on task and purpose is apparent.

Once we got rolling as a team, we met weekly to hash out the details of the upcoming week –where each person would be each bell, with which group of students, what content was being taught, and who was responsible for what.  This became routine – a norm. We couldn’t function without it, but with this process in place, we were a well-oiled machine.

 Stage 4: Performing.  This is the optimal level of functioning, and occurs when teams utilize each member’s strengths to work toward shared goals. The above example of Beau’s selflessness in assisting with my summer work was a powerful example of performing. We were a team – we looked out for, and depended on, each other.

 Collaboration is not easy, and, contrary to common belief, it doesn’t save time. Functional teaming takes significant time and energy; however, when teams are willing to work together, the results are better than when individuals work alone, and, as noted in The Washington Post, it is critical to tackling our most challenging issues in education.

 

 

 

Neuroscience – Or How Teachers Become Tigers

-by Krista Taylor

Saber-Tooth-TigerIt’s first bell Monday morning, and one of my students seems to have forgotten the procedures. Typically students enter my classroom, quickly settle, and begin working on the posted assignment, but on this day, Jason was out of his seat talking loudly with a peer.

“Jason, please have a seat and get started on the warm-up.”

“WHY YOU ALWAYS GOT SOMETHIN’ TO SAY TO ME?!?!”

Whoa. What just happened? I thought I was issuing a firm but respectful redirection, but Jason’s brain just perceived me as a saber-toothed tiger in the wilderness.

Humans are remarkable specimens of evolution. While our highly developed, pre-frontal cortex is uniquely human, our brains also retain the vestigial remains of our evolutionary ancestors, which have helped us to survive as a species.

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We are necessarily pre-disposed to scan our environment for threats – in essence, to seek out problems. This not only causes us to focus on the negative, it also requires us to determine whether to address concerns through the rational thought of the pre-frontal cortex, or through the “flight-or-fight” response of the reptilian brain. This determination is the job of the amygdala.

The problem is that the amygdala cannot always differentiate between imminent threats to life and limb — like a saber-toothed tiger, and modern day streScreen Shot 2016-02-21 at 8.46.38 PMssors — like tight deadlines, traffic jams, or teacher redirection. A stressed brain is flooded with chemicals in order to be physiologically and psychologically prepared for “fight or flight.”

People experiencing chronic stress have essentially had their brains hijacked. The increase in stress essentially places the brain on high-alert, causing it to potentially over-react to every concern. (Learn more here)

Unfortunately, chronic stress is far too common for many students in urban school settings. As educators, we must keep in mind that some of our students don’t know where they’re going to sleep that night, or how they are getting their next me#5al. They may rarely get enough rest due to caring for younger siblings, or simply being afraid to go to sleep at night. They may experience anxiety about not having appropriate school supplies, or the “right” clothes to wear. We often never know what it takes for our students to show up at school each day.

It is little wonder that chronically stressed children may respond to a simple redirection by shutting down or becoming disrespectful, disruptive, or even aggressive.  Their brains are flooded with stress hormones, which cause the unwitting teacher to suddenly become the saber-toothed tiger in the forest.

However, there are few situations in our modern-world where fleeing a situation, or responding to it with aggression, is in our best interest. Calming the amygdala is critical to the brain’s ability to resume executive functioning. A relaxed amygdala directs information to the pre-frontal cortex, so we can think clearly and make good decisions. This is true for adults and students alike. A calm classroom environment is essential for pre-disposing the brain for learning. The suggestions below can be helpful for establishing a classroom climate, which helps mitigate the impact of a stressed-out brain.

  • Be clear and explicit in what you want students to do
  • Use positive framing to correct behavior
  • Depersonalize correction, using anonymous, group correction wherever possible
  • Keep individual correction private
  • Regularly provide precise praise
    • Praise releases dopamine which improves learning and memory; conversely, criticism makes it harder to focus and learn
    • Use DLP – Describe what the student did, Label the action (helpful, generous, patient, industrious, etc), then provide Praise
    • Repeated praise reinforces positive behavior by strengthening neural pathways (In this same way, repeated criticism reinforces negative behavior)
  • Teach optimism, and provide regular opportunities to help students note what is going well
  • Provide instruction in mindfulness strategies
    • Taking a few deep breaths
    • Mental counting
    • Focusing on an image or a meaningful phrase
    • Practicing meditation
  • Don’t take student misbehavior personally; this will help you to stay calm and objective

These techniques help students to get their brains in the best possible state for learning to occur. Without them, all the time and energy a teacher spends crafting beautiful lesson plans may be wasted – no one can learn when there is a perceived saber-toothed tiger in the classroom!

Erdkinder – The Fall Camping Experience

 

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-by Krista Taylor

Every year, in the middle of September, I fall a little bit in love with each of my students, while simultaneously experiencing some of the greatest stress and fatigue of the entire school year. Our annual fall camping trip is intense – and it yields profound results.

tents

Let me be honest. I really don’t like camping . . . at all.  And yet I have camped with my students each September for the past six years. It certainly isn’t “glamping.” It is rustic. And dirty. And stressful. And exhausting.

However, I am certain, beyond a shadow of a doubt, that this annual experience is critical to my students . . . and to me.

At Gamble, every fall, our 7th and 8th grade communities spend 4 days and 3 nights (rain or shine) tent camping, without the benefit of electricity or other creature comforts. We cook all our meals, do all our dishes, and manage all our needs together at the campsite – not a small feat for 55-65 individuals.

mess kits

The best way I have to explain the power of this Erdkinder experience is simply to share with you glimpses – in stories and photographs — of this trip. These glimpses provide insight about my students that I never would have gained inside the classroom. The stories below are from different trips with different students – in fact the photos are intentionally of different students than those discussed in the stories, because year after year, this trip seems to draw the same positive qualities out of each group of students.   The powerful moments in each trip seem to be universal experiences.

Almost all of these stories feature students who often struggle with expectations at school, and that is what defines the power of this trip — the opportunity to see students in a different light, one that allows them to shine.

So imagine, if you will . . .

One evening, I was helping a student with significant disabilities on his work packet. I looked up to find William, a rather challenging student, standing beside me.

“Do you want me to work with him, Ms. Taylor?”

“Do you know the difference between biotic and abiotic factors?”

“Yeah. Biotic means living, and abiotic means non-living. I got this, Ms. Taylor!”

The two of them spent the next half hour working quietly side-by-side, on a picnic bench at the edge of the woods.

Joell and Katherine

 

When students were able to choose their own partner for the final leg of the canoe trip, Malik, a popular, 8th grade student chose to wait to pick a partner in order to see who wasn’t getting chosen. Ultimately, he selected an unpopular 7th grade girl, admitting to a teacher later that he did this because, “No one was picking her, and I didn’t want her to feel left out.”

canoeing

 

My tent was next to the tent of a group of girls who were nature-phobic. Over and over again, I was summoned with screeches of, “Ms. Taylor! There’s a spider on our tent!” “Ms. Taylor, Come get this caterpillar!!” “OMG there’s a bug!” The final morning of camp, things had shifted.

Same girls. Same screech, “Ms. Taylor!!”

Then it became different.

“Come see!! We caught a toad!”

toad

 

On the way to the bathhouse one morning, a boy with Down Syndrome silently reached up to hold the hand of another male student. Despite a jeering look from a peer, this 6’2″ 8th grader didn’t say a word, and the two walked all the way down the path holding hands.

hug

 

The initiation ceremony is the culminating celebration of the trip, and it is entirely planned by returning students to welcome the new students. Each year, the speeches the students write serve to remind me of the importance of “what we do here.”

ceremony

It is the ownership of creating a place where everyone belongs that makes the stress, the exhaustion, and even the dirt, of this non-glamping experience, all worth it.

All real-world experiences provide powerful learning, but there is something about Fall Camp that is unique. In the confluence of the hard work, the time spent outdoors, and the opportunity to intensely build community, lies the magic upon which the rest of the year is built.

 

 

Student-Led Conferences

 

-by Krista Taylor

Montessori philosophy uses the “Golden Triangle” to represent the strength and importance of the relationship between teachers, students, and parents, but Gamble, like many other urban schools, struggles with lower levels of parent involvement than we’d like.

It is important to remember that many parents experience anxiety about involvement in their child’s school. This may be because of negative school experiences they had themselves, worries that either their child or their parenting skills will be critiqued, or concerns about their ability to understand the academic instruction that is being provided.

I didn’t fully understand the depth of this tension until I attended my first parent-teacher conference in the role of a parent. Despite the many times I had sat on the teacher side of the table, and regardless that my child was doing well, and I understood what the conversation was going to be about, I was nervous.

What exactly would the teacher say about my child? If my child is experiencing challenges, how will that reflect on me? How can I both make a good impression and serve as an advocate for my child?

As a teacher, there are strategies to alleviate some of this discomfort, which then in turn, allows the parent or guardian to engage fully with school staff to support the academic and developmental growth of the child.

Proactive Conference Strategies

  • Begin each interaction with something positive about the child
  • Assume that the parent or guardian is doing the best that they can; however do not assume that they already know how to address concerns.
  • Do not label a child; rather describe the behavior you have observed
  • Open the door to further communication
  • Remember that you are teaching other people’s children; that every student you serve is someone’s child, and they have chosen to share this gift with you.

All schools hold parent-teacher conference nights. In Montessori programs, these look different. Our conferences are Student-Led Conferences, so called because the student leads the meeting. It is the student whose performance is being discussed; therefore the student is in charge of the conversation.

At Gamble, we require all students to hold these conferences at least once, and often twice, a year. This is part of the school contract that our students and parents sign upon enrollment. To manage this, we hold two conference nights each quarter, rather than the required one. Since students lead the conference, multiple conferences happen simultaneously, with teachers checking in at each table to provide information and clarification.

Templates guide students in running the conference. The templates vary according to program, teacher, and grade level, but generally include the following:

  • how to formally introduce your parents and teachers
  • preparing materials for presentation
  • identifying strengths
  • noting concerns
  • setting explicit goals for moving forward.

This process allows the child to self-report on how things are going at school, and to take responsibility both for what is going well, and for what is not. Additionally, when information is shared together, and everyone hears the same message at the same time, it creates a sense of collaboration between the student, the parent, and the teacher – strengthening that “Golden Triangle.”

It is yet another component of “what we do here,” and another way to develop a school culture of belonging. This is illustrated by the conference we had with Deon and his mother last spring.

Deon had been highly disruptive in the classroom – he had more than 40 logged disciplinary offenses for the year. This was a difficult conference to hold; it was challenging to find anything positive to say. It could easily have turned into a conflict, but because of the way we conduct conferences, the outcome was one of unified support. Deon’s mother ended our meeting with a request for a group hug, and with these powerful words, “We are all on the same team – Team Deon.”

Parents can be a teacher’s greatest allies. Every interaction a teacher has with students’ parents or guardians can serve as an opportunity to strengthen the relationship, even if the conversation is a difficult one.   Conference nights can be powerful for all parties involved; never miss an opportunity to connect with a child’s family, to be a member of that child’s “team.”

 

Valorization of the Adolescent

 

-by Krista Taylor

The human personality . . . must be strengthened in his principles by moral training and he must also have practical ability in order to face the difficulties of life. Men with hands Slide10and no head, and men with head and no hands are equally out of place in the modern community.  –Montessori

While there are many things that secondary Montessori education is, and at least an equal number of things that it isn’t, it is these words that perhaps encapsulate best the heart of the work. Montessori broadly defined the development of the realms of both the head and the hands as “valorization.” More specifically, this is the development of: joy, optimism, confidence, dignity, self-discipline, initiative, independence, helpfulness, mindfulness, and the ability to work with others.

Valorization is a process, not a product. As such, it is difficult to measure and to track in the way that so much of education is expected to be documented today. Rather, it is caught in glimpses that may at first be fleeting, but which grow and strengthen over time. I was fortunate to catch one of those fleeting glimpses while grading essays in which students argued whether their academics, behavior, and leadership indicated that they were ready for promotion to the next grade.

Marcus is one of my more challenging students. He came to Gamble Montessori a year ago from an alternate program for students with significant behavioral needs; therefore it was not surprising that things haven’t been smooth sailing. In his promotion essay, Marcus wrote, in part:

“I am kind of proud of my grades because compared to last year I can see I have grown stronger academically. My second quarter grades were kind of disappointing because I did worse than first quarter. My grades are not perfect, but I will continue to improve so that I can be promoted. My behavior, to be honest, is not very good. I have had lots of attitude problems, meltdowns, suspensions, and other consequences that come from my behavior. I also have made lots of improvement from last year, but improvement or not, I understand that the kind of behavior I show is not acceptable at all. I know I have the potential and skills to make good decisions when I am angry. I’m not sure if I am a leader to be honest. I guess I showed leadership at Fall Camp. I was able to help people who had their canoes flipped over. I also stepped up when I offered to clean up some things at the end of camp. I showed a big leadership role when a friend’s mother died. I decided to be with him as much as I could to support him and to make sure he knew he did not have to go through it alone. In my recent group project, I showed great leadership by helping and making sure my partner got comfortable with our project. So I guess I am a good leader, which is also a great reason why I should be promoted.”

In this brief writing, where Marcus seems to be convincing even himself of his personal growth, there is evidence of optimism, confidence, dignity, self-discipline, initiative, independence, helpfulness, and the ability to work with others. Marcus is in the process of becoming valorized. This did not occur arbitrarily; the entirety of a secondary Montessori program is built intentionally around this goal. Secondary Montessori programs have many avenues through which valorization occurs.

Components include:

  • a sense of belonging created through daily morning meetings, a practice of sharing acknowledgment, and care-taking of the environment
  • Weekly goal setting, self-reflection and time-management skills
  • Field experiences where students engage in personal challenge, cooperative team building, and finding awe in the world around them
  • Academics that are cross-curricular, connect to big idea themes, and nurture interest and engagement

Valorization is what results over time when students are immersed in these experiences on a regular basis.

So, yes, Marcus, I, too, think that you are capable of being a great leader, and I have been blessed to serve as one of your guides through your process of transformation. Witnessing the emergence of valorization is the greatest joy of teaching.

 

Secondary Montessori — New Curriculum Rooted in Old Pedagogy

-by Krista Taylor

The secondary Montessori movement was essentially begun in the mid 1990s with the formation of Clark Montessori School  (Cincinnati, OH) and The Hershey Farm School Adolescent Program. (Huntsburg, OH) Today there are an estimated 400 Montessori adolescent programs worldwide – this is miniscule in proportion to a total of more than 20,000 Montessori programs overall. Currently there are only 2 American Montessori Society affiliated secondary Montessori training programs for teachers – Cincinnati Montessori Secondary Teacher Education Program– through which both Jack and I earned our credential – and Houston Montessori Center, which has locations in both Texas and California.

It is exciting to be a part of something that remains in the process of self-creation. While secondary Montessori education was something that Maria Montessori envisioned, she did not develop a secondary program, herself, instead leaving it to future generations to do so.

Those of us working in Montessori secondary programs today are that future generation of whom Montessori spoke. Turning her philosophy into comprehensive practice is our “big work.”

Montessori identified four distinct planes of development: birth to age 6, ages 6 to 12, ages 12 to 18, and ages 18-24. Her work initially focused on the first two planes; however, during the 1920s, she began studying the needs of the adolescent. Her philosophy on the educational needs of children in this third plane of development can be found in her book, From Childhood to Adolescence, which was first published in 1948. In that text, she writes:

“The need that is so keenly felt for a reform of secondary schools concerns not only an educational, but also a human and social problem. Schools, as they are today, are adapted neither to the needs of adolescents nor to the times in which we live. Society has not only developed into a state of utmost complication and extreme contrasts, but it has now come to a crisis in which the peace of the world and civilization itself are threatened. More than to anything else it is due to the fact that the development of man himself has not kept pace with that of his external environment.”

It is almost eerie how resonant her words remain today.

Montessori had a vision for a more developmentally appropriate model of learning; she referred to adolescents as “Erdkinder,” or “Earth’s children” because she believed that they were best served by working outside the classroom in a farm-like natural environment. While this is unrealistic in light of the many requirements of modern education, the pioneers in the secondary Montessori movement have used this philosophy as a foundation, and have outlined curricula for effective Montessori programs that also align with state and district academic requirements. The fundamental elements are outlined below. Many of these overlap with what would be expected in any Montessori classroom, while others are specific to a secondary program.

Establishment of a peaceful community

  • daily student-led community meetings
  • fostering a sense of belonging through communal learning and collaborative work
  • multi-age groupings in classrooms
  • modeling and instruction in grace and courtesy

Emphasis on the Nobility of Work

  • implementation of over-arching developmental themes
  • cross-curricular integration
  • differentiation and choice of work
  • uninterrupted work periods
  • seminar discussions which explore big themes, differences in perspectives, and complex issues of our time
  • student-led conferences
  • intentional fostering of executive functioning tasks: time management, organization, decision making, self-reflection, and goal setting

Connections to Cosmic Education

In this model, the teacher serves as a guide to the community of learners. She supports the valorization (growth of positive qualities) of the adolescent, demonstrates wisdom, caring, and thoughtfulness, fosters cooperation and collaboration, and is responsive to the many needs of her students.

Secondary Montessori education is a burgeoning practice. One that by many accounts was initiated a mere 25 years ago, but which is rapidly gaining momentum. It is the type of instruction that so many of us have been seeking – teachers, students, and families alike.

 

 

 

 

Paying Back Privilege

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     -by Krista Taylor

What is privilege? 

There exist in America two very separate worlds that rarely intertwine – the worlds of the haves and the have-nots. The difference between the two is privilege.

Privilege is the presence of a safety net. The distance between incidents of bad luck and ensuing devastation. Those with privilege can withstand problems, often without long-term consequences, because they can pay for the necessary health care; have the resources and education to find another job; have access to generational support to keep the bills paid when finances are tight; and can seek out services to help sustain through addiction, mental illness, or disability.

In America, anyone can ultimately become successful, but for some the pathway to achieving this success is smoother than it is for others.

I was a child of privilege. My pathway to success was made smoother by a number of factors outside of my control.

To start with, I am white. The fact that this makes things easier is something that we are often uncomfortable discussing, but this privilege of birth is one whose power I suspect I could only truly understand were it to be taken away. Suffice it to say that we live in a society where skin color continues to matter.   Privilege, however, extends far beyond the gene pool.

My mother had good pre-natal healthcare, and therefore I was born without deficiencies or complications. I lived in a household full of books where I was regularly read to, and where I witnessed people reading often. I didn’t worry about having enough food, and my parents did not have to make difficult choices about the cost of food in relation to its nutritional value. I lived in a safe neighborhood where I had the freedom to independently explore the world for hours on end. My parents worked regular schedules, so I was consistently supervised outside of school hours.

Education was always treated in my household as something of critical importance. I was enrolled in high-performing schools, and therefore, I was surrounded by peers who had the same perspective about academic achievement that I did. Additionally, my family has college-graduates going back for multiple generations. Therefore, not only was there a powerful expectation that a college degree was a given for me, my parents had a clear understanding of how to make this happen.

Each of these things made my life a little easier, my success a little more guaranteed.

None of these benefits are things that I made happen. They are all things that occurred irrespective of my effort – that is privilege.

I was never truly hungry or malnourished.

I never worried about where I was going to sleep at night.

I was never unable to go outside because of safety concerns.

I never had changing, or absent, caregivers.

I never questioned the value of education.

I am privileged.

I know this because every day I work with students who do not have this same experience. Their road is a little harder; their success not as certain.

I believe that with my privilege comes the responsibility to work to even the playing field for others.

Those of us with privilege must seek opportunities to make the journey easier, to grease the wheels, to change the outcome. Acting on these opportunities will bring us one step closer to equality, one step closer to a nation where no one is born with the cards stacked against them, one step closer to the ideals upon which America was founded.

Eight months ago, as a result of being named the Hawkins Educator of the Year, I had a check for $10,000 placed in my hands. It is because of this philosophy of “paying back privilege” that I did not hesitate in handing the money over to the Gamble Montessori Foundation to support students in paying for some of the costs of our program.

It is profound to have the opportunity to potentially “change the outcome” for a child. If I can successfully do that for even just one, it will have been enough.

It is my opportunity to pay back privilege. I can’t imagine what greater gift I could give.

Krista Taylor