Socratic Seminar for Every Classroom

-by Jack M. Jose

Mortimer Adler Great Books Series
The Great Books collection in Jack’s home

Socratic Seminar for Every Classroom

The Friday before winter break, 16 years ago, in the middle of a formal classroom discussion – a seminar – I put down my pen. I stopped trying to capture what was happening in order to consciously be part of what had become a moment of transcendence. The gesture, putting down my pen, had an immediate effect on the students around the table. “Is something wrong?” a student asked. Other students seemed to have the same question. I searched for the right words. “Oh, no. In fact, it’s just about perfect. I’ve stopped writing because you’re all doing it.” This received a quizzical look, so I tried to explain. “You know … IT. You guys are having this great discussion about literature, citing the story, involving each other … you’re all getting 4’s. “ This was the highest possible score. “Please, don’t stop.” Fortunately, this interruption was not able to derail the conversation, and a student immediately picked up the thread of the previous question.

Two days earlier, my co-teacher and I had assigned “A Christmas Memory” by Truman Capote for our 11th grade students to read at home. The next day – yesterday – we read almost the whole thing aloud together. We had pointed out important aspects of characterization and setting, and highlighted other key elements of the story, working to answer questions as some students struggled to understand the text, while others picked up the subtleties of Capote’s masterful storytelling. In fact it was a small detail that the students examined in seminar that made me realize they understood the purpose of deep reading and conversation of good literature. The story examines a quirky relationship between an older woman and a young boy who are cousins in a large household. In the story, at Christmas time, they go in search of a Christmas tree. The boy describes their conversation about the tree, referring to the woman as “my friend”: “It should be,” muses my friend, “twice as tall as a boy. So a boy can’t steal the star.” The one we pick is twice as tall as me.

A student focused on one part of the sentence, saying aloud, “twice as tall as a boy.”

The students dug in and explored the comment, and looked for other similar ideas in the story. They noticed a pattern of how much of the older woman’s actions revolve around the boy. “It’s like, not just any boy. She measures the tree by the narrator. She does everything for him,” says one of them. “And with him,” adds another. Other students seize on this and find similar quotes in support. … And I put down my pen.

“It should be,” muses my friend, “twice as tall as a boy. So a boy can’t steal the star.” The one we pick is twice as tall as me.

Getting to a moment like this took hard work. These students entered the Paideia program at Hughes Center as 9th graders, and some of them had gone to a Paideia middle school prior to that. So years of nearly weekly practice went in to an 11th grade seminar. However, the conditions for a successful seminar can be created in any classroom.

Mortimer Adler was the father of the Paideia philosophy of instruction. Named with the Greek word for “all knowledge”, the philosophy emphasized the need to expose all people to the important philosophies from mankind’s history, such that any two people waiting for a bus could strike up a conversation about the “great ideas.” The philosophy provided a formula for teaching which suggested small amounts of didactic instruction, larger amounts of guided work time, and a dedication to regular, formal guided discussions called “seminar” It looks somewhat like the 3-part lesson in Montessori classrooms, and places responsibility on the teacher to present information accurately, then to guide the student in exploration of the content.

Seminar: Selecting the text

Adler proposed a formal book list, which he called the “Great Books.” His company accumulated, bound, and sold this series of books, which included the writings of Aristotle, Shakespeare, Plato, Galileo, and Tolstoy. It came with a guide to the “great questions” asked in each, which aligns to the understanding in education today that our minds seek to acquire knowledge in an organized way, and that thematic organization promotes memory. While Adler’s “Great Books” series came to be criticized for emphasizing western thought, teachers at Hughes supplemented Socrates with Gandhi, and DaVinci’s notebooks with Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, and we read Amy Tan, Alice Walker and others to intentionally broaden our worldview. These texts can range from historical documents such as The Declaration of Independence to short fiction such as Flannery O’Connor’s “A Good Man is Hard To Find”, both of which explore notions related to good and evil. I have also conducted seminar on one poem or a group of poems, or even on one or more works of art.

The best text fits well with a larger quarterly theme, engages the students, challenges them as readers, and is well written so as to stand up to the rigors of close reading. Sometimes the choice is clear, as a particular document is a core part of the curriculum. Other times the selection can only be reached after weeks of discussion and exploration by a team of teachers during the process of developing the quarterly curriculum.

Seminar: Preparing the student

This seminar formula is replicable anywhere. Many of the readings that address these large issues are challenging, especially for adolescents, and so a careful reading in advance is necessary for a successful seminar. Students are asked to read and highlight each text independently in advance, then to do a guided reading together as a class. Many times this involves the teacher(s) reading aloud, though depending on the difficulty of the text, allowing student readers or even small group readings can achieve the same goal. During the close reading, we taught and reinforced the skills of close reading – highlighting key ideas in the text, writing questions in the margins, and seeking constantly for the “universal ideas” in the text.

Seeking the universal ideas in the text is a key goal of the reading and seminar process. For instance, “A Christmas Memory” may seem to be a warm story about an an older woman some may describe as “simple” and a young boy always excited to see what she has planned for them to do each day, but in fact it reveals a lot about love and how to be in relationship with each other in general. Who doesn’t want to be with someone who eccentrically measures their world in relation to yourself? The last preparation was for students to gather a few, say 5-10, of these universal questions , which we referred to together as “critical thinking questions,” in preparation for seminar. Once this preparation is complete, you are ready to seminar.

Seminar: Preparing the space

A prepared seminar room allows students to sit at tables or desks in a circle or rectangle, with each student able to see the others. The ideal size of a seminar is 10 to 15 students, roughly half a class. (This can be accomplished in most classrooms without the aid of a co-teacher by having half the students completing independent work while the others seminar, then switching.) Students’ last names are written neatly on small formal placards: “Ms. Robinson”, “Mr. Chin”, “Ms. Simmons”.

The teacher should be in this circle, as well. The skilled teacher seeks to play the role of a moderator, asking probing questions, challenging students to remain engaged in conversation on matters related to the text or the universal ideas, and seeking full engagement. The teacher may have prepared a list of dozens of questions, often gathered while seeking the best opening and core questions for the seminar. His text is marked with areas where students expressed confusion, excitement, or strong emotions; every well-chosen text has moments of clarity, important ideas, or strong emotions that must be visited in seminar, just as every foreign state has monuments and memorials that must be visited when one is travelling.

Guidelines for Socratic Seminar image

Additionally, the seminar space should have the formal rules of seminar, which have been taught to them previously, posted where students can see and be reminded of them. The final preparation is the formal display of the opening and core questions. These are visible to the student to avoid confusion and allow revisiting both questions throughout the conversation. Here is an example of the rules of seminar: Guidelines for Socratic Seminar final

 

Every well-chosen text has moments of clarity, important ideas, or strong emotions that must be visited in seminar, just as every foreign state has monuments and memorials that must be visited when one is travelling.

Seminar Itself

As participants entered the space, or prior to them doing so, the teacher might indicate which skills students should focus on during the seminar by marking their self-scoring sheet. Students entering should be asked to write down and respond to the opening question, if it was not assigned as homework. A good use of the arrival transition time as students are writing their opener is to check for the critical thinking questions, assisting students and the seminar by circling the questions most likely to lead to more in-depth conversation or to head toward the core question. This is especially important for those students who have trouble knowing when to interject in seminar; if a question has already been designated by the teacher as a “good” question, they are far more comfortable asking it in front of their peers.

Seminar begins with one person, usually the facilitator, asking the opening question aloud. The students respond to it by reading their written response, and often adding a brief comment reflecting their thoughts in the minute since their writing began, or contradictions the did not have time to address. From there, the guide or facilitator seeks to use questions to accomplish several tasks:

  • Promote in-depth discussion of key questions
  • Promote universal involvement
  • Visit key text ideas to examine the author’s purpose
  • Lead students to the core question

Seminar demands a lot from the facilitator, who must not only guide the intellectual direction of the conversation, but who must also help manage the behaviors of the group of adolescents in the room. The formality of the setting, and the advanced preparation of the students, helps everyone stay focused and successful during seminar.

Every seminar, like every conversation, seems to have a natural length. Typically, a sustained conversation of 40 minutes is a good benchmark. Seldom is a question so engaging as to involve a group of students for much longer than that, and it is difficult to get very deep into a text in a shorter period than that.

That said, the best seminar is the one where the facilitator has taught and coached the students in the strategies such that they self-regulate – making sure everyone gets a chance to respond to the opening question, asking and answering each others’ questions, and finding the appropriate way to drive toward the core question with enough time left to adequately address it. Students in a high-functioning seminar, who have grasped the essential meaning of the text, might even have the confidence to reject a core question and replace it with one of their own.

Seminar: Evaluation

Evaluation in my “A Christmas Memory” seminar was easy at the end, because I had observed (and noted) all of the key aspects of good seminar activity prior to setting down my pen. Prior to that I had been almost frantically recording notes, often in an improvised shorthand, to try and capture the thread of the conversation and who was exhibiting which key seminar skills. (In fact, it was likely the sudden lack of constant activity at my end of the table that disrupted the seminar.) The self-evaluation sheet I gave to every student looked for a series of appropriate actions they were to attempt, while being aware that they might not be able to do them all. A non-comprehensive list of these skills includes:

  • ask questions for clarification
  • make eye contact
  • cite the text
  • involve others
  • help clarify ideas for others
  • ask universal questions
  • make allusions to other common texts
  • allow others to speak.

This list can be modified for the needs of the class. A final score for seminar can be derived from looking at these items holistically: the marked text, the student’s critical thinking questions, the written response to the opening question, the student’s performance in the seminar itself, and the written response to the core question. Here is one example: Seminar Evaluation Form – modified

Seminar key items revisited

To recap, a successful seminar happens when conditions are right. The teacher has great responsibility for helping these conditions. Here is what can be prepared to provide the greatest chance for success:

  • An engaging text, preferably related to a larger quarterly theme
  • A plan for creating a group of 10-15 students
  • A plan for allowing 40 to 60 minutes of unbroken conversation
  • Formal name card for each student participant
  • Room for a circle or rectangle where all students have equal access or status
  • An opening question, one which requires some exploration of their prepared text and/or invites discussion or even disagreement
  • Seminar evaluation form for each student (here’s another example: Conscience seminar form )
  • A tracking document to note student involvement and performance; some use blank paper, some use a chart like this one: Seminar tracking document example
  • A core question, one which exposes a universal question in the text and calls on the reader to address the question in their text, in the quarterly readings and experiences, and in their own experience.

The guided formal investigation of a topic is an essential part of a successful classroom plan. When students gain the ability to formally interact with each other to examine a topic in-depth, they are ready for the most demanding tasks we can place on them after they leave the classroom.

I invite you to comment with a specific piece of literature that you have used to address a key component of your curriculum – was it an historical text to support a social studies standard, or perhaps a work of fiction to help explain a science objective? Please share your story in the comments, and be sure to enter your address to subscribe to our blog, where you will get weekly updates delivered straight to your inbox.

Valorization of the Adolescent

 

-by Krista Taylor

The human personality . . . must be strengthened in his principles by moral training and he must also have practical ability in order to face the difficulties of life. Men with hands Slide10and no head, and men with head and no hands are equally out of place in the modern community.  –Montessori

While there are many things that secondary Montessori education is, and at least an equal number of things that it isn’t, it is these words that perhaps encapsulate best the heart of the work. Montessori broadly defined the development of the realms of both the head and the hands as “valorization.” More specifically, this is the development of: joy, optimism, confidence, dignity, self-discipline, initiative, independence, helpfulness, mindfulness, and the ability to work with others.

Valorization is a process, not a product. As such, it is difficult to measure and to track in the way that so much of education is expected to be documented today. Rather, it is caught in glimpses that may at first be fleeting, but which grow and strengthen over time. I was fortunate to catch one of those fleeting glimpses while grading essays in which students argued whether their academics, behavior, and leadership indicated that they were ready for promotion to the next grade.

Marcus is one of my more challenging students. He came to Gamble Montessori a year ago from an alternate program for students with significant behavioral needs; therefore it was not surprising that things haven’t been smooth sailing. In his promotion essay, Marcus wrote, in part:

“I am kind of proud of my grades because compared to last year I can see I have grown stronger academically. My second quarter grades were kind of disappointing because I did worse than first quarter. My grades are not perfect, but I will continue to improve so that I can be promoted. My behavior, to be honest, is not very good. I have had lots of attitude problems, meltdowns, suspensions, and other consequences that come from my behavior. I also have made lots of improvement from last year, but improvement or not, I understand that the kind of behavior I show is not acceptable at all. I know I have the potential and skills to make good decisions when I am angry. I’m not sure if I am a leader to be honest. I guess I showed leadership at Fall Camp. I was able to help people who had their canoes flipped over. I also stepped up when I offered to clean up some things at the end of camp. I showed a big leadership role when a friend’s mother died. I decided to be with him as much as I could to support him and to make sure he knew he did not have to go through it alone. In my recent group project, I showed great leadership by helping and making sure my partner got comfortable with our project. So I guess I am a good leader, which is also a great reason why I should be promoted.”

In this brief writing, where Marcus seems to be convincing even himself of his personal growth, there is evidence of optimism, confidence, dignity, self-discipline, initiative, independence, helpfulness, and the ability to work with others. Marcus is in the process of becoming valorized. This did not occur arbitrarily; the entirety of a secondary Montessori program is built intentionally around this goal. Secondary Montessori programs have many avenues through which valorization occurs.

Components include:

  • a sense of belonging created through daily morning meetings, a practice of sharing acknowledgment, and care-taking of the environment
  • Weekly goal setting, self-reflection and time-management skills
  • Field experiences where students engage in personal challenge, cooperative team building, and finding awe in the world around them
  • Academics that are cross-curricular, connect to big idea themes, and nurture interest and engagement

Valorization is what results over time when students are immersed in these experiences on a regular basis.

So, yes, Marcus, I, too, think that you are capable of being a great leader, and I have been blessed to serve as one of your guides through your process of transformation. Witnessing the emergence of valorization is the greatest joy of teaching.

 

Secondary Montessori — New Curriculum Rooted in Old Pedagogy

-by Krista Taylor

The secondary Montessori movement was essentially begun in the mid 1990s with the formation of Clark Montessori School  (Cincinnati, OH) and The Hershey Farm School Adolescent Program. (Huntsburg, OH) Today there are an estimated 400 Montessori adolescent programs worldwide – this is miniscule in proportion to a total of more than 20,000 Montessori programs overall. Currently there are only 2 American Montessori Society affiliated secondary Montessori training programs for teachers – Cincinnati Montessori Secondary Teacher Education Program– through which both Jack and I earned our credential – and Houston Montessori Center, which has locations in both Texas and California.

It is exciting to be a part of something that remains in the process of self-creation. While secondary Montessori education was something that Maria Montessori envisioned, she did not develop a secondary program, herself, instead leaving it to future generations to do so.

Those of us working in Montessori secondary programs today are that future generation of whom Montessori spoke. Turning her philosophy into comprehensive practice is our “big work.”

Montessori identified four distinct planes of development: birth to age 6, ages 6 to 12, ages 12 to 18, and ages 18-24. Her work initially focused on the first two planes; however, during the 1920s, she began studying the needs of the adolescent. Her philosophy on the educational needs of children in this third plane of development can be found in her book, From Childhood to Adolescence, which was first published in 1948. In that text, she writes:

“The need that is so keenly felt for a reform of secondary schools concerns not only an educational, but also a human and social problem. Schools, as they are today, are adapted neither to the needs of adolescents nor to the times in which we live. Society has not only developed into a state of utmost complication and extreme contrasts, but it has now come to a crisis in which the peace of the world and civilization itself are threatened. More than to anything else it is due to the fact that the development of man himself has not kept pace with that of his external environment.”

It is almost eerie how resonant her words remain today.

Montessori had a vision for a more developmentally appropriate model of learning; she referred to adolescents as “Erdkinder,” or “Earth’s children” because she believed that they were best served by working outside the classroom in a farm-like natural environment. While this is unrealistic in light of the many requirements of modern education, the pioneers in the secondary Montessori movement have used this philosophy as a foundation, and have outlined curricula for effective Montessori programs that also align with state and district academic requirements. The fundamental elements are outlined below. Many of these overlap with what would be expected in any Montessori classroom, while others are specific to a secondary program.

Establishment of a peaceful community

  • daily student-led community meetings
  • fostering a sense of belonging through communal learning and collaborative work
  • multi-age groupings in classrooms
  • modeling and instruction in grace and courtesy

Emphasis on the Nobility of Work

  • implementation of over-arching developmental themes
  • cross-curricular integration
  • differentiation and choice of work
  • uninterrupted work periods
  • seminar discussions which explore big themes, differences in perspectives, and complex issues of our time
  • student-led conferences
  • intentional fostering of executive functioning tasks: time management, organization, decision making, self-reflection, and goal setting

Connections to Cosmic Education

  • incorporating opportunities to cultivate a sense of global citizenship and harmony with the universe
  • nurturance of a spirit of generosity, abundance, awe, and wonder
  • opportunities for service learning
  • real-world experiences including engagement with the natural world

In this model, the teacher serves as a guide to the community of learners. She supports the valorization (growth of positive qualities) of the adolescent, demonstrates wisdom, caring, and thoughtfulness, fosters cooperation and collaboration, and is responsive to the many needs of her students.

Secondary Montessori education is a burgeoning practice. One that by many accounts was initiated a mere 25 years ago, but which is rapidly gaining momentum. It is the type of instruction that so many of us have been seeking – teachers, students, and families alike.

 

 

 

 

This “Montessori Thing”

 

-by Krista Taylor

Anyone connected to education today has heard the following espoused as best practices:

  • Project-Based Learning
  • Differentiated Instruction
  • Social-Emotional Learning
  • Use of Manipulatives and Hands-On Activities
  • Real-World Experiences
  • Rigor
  • High Expectations

These are cutting-age, modern instructional practices, right?

Wrong.

Maria Montessori first began developing and implementing these techniques in the early 20th century.Maria Montessori

She was a visionary, a pioneer, and a barrier breaker. It is only now, as much of her methodology is being embraced as research-proven practice in traditional, non-Montessori classrooms, that her brilliance is being fully revealed.

Breaking Barriers

Maria Montessori defied convention from the very beginning. She was born in Italy in 1870 during a time when women’s roles were restricted. Despite the discouragement of her father, she dreamed of becoming a doctor.

Initially denied acceptance to medical school, she was eventually allowed to enroll; obtaining admission, however, was only the first of the challenges she would face. She endured hostility and harassment from some of her classmates and professors. Additionally, because it was considered untoward for women and men to be in the presence of a naked body together, in order to do the requisite cadaver dissections, she was required to work alone and at night. Despite this adversity, she graduated from medical school in 1896 and became Italy’s first female physician.

Pioneering

Her early practice involved working with children with disabilities, and it was this work that ultimately drew her to education. She was a keen observer and data collector. She deduced that children are innately drawn to learning and discovery. From this, she began developing manipulatives to support student learning. Anyone who has had the privilege of witnessing division of fractions using the skittles, or multiplication of polynomials using the binomial or trinomial cube (a material that is first introduced to three year olds) understands the magic that transpires when the “what we do” of mathematic algorithms becomes supported by the “why we do it” that comes with concrete comprehension. I have seen many adults become wide-eyed when the “flip the second fraction and multiply” rule for fraction division becomes clear once demonstrated using Montessori materials, or the complex algebraic concepts built into the binomial cube and trinomial cube is revealed.  One of the most quintessential Montessori materials is the moveable alphabet, which allows very young children to successfully tackle the complex tasks of reading and writing, and to find pride and joy in doing so.

Visionary

In 1906, Montessori was invited to oversee a school for children from low-income families in Rome’s inner city. It was here that she determined that her educational methods were equally effective for children without disabilities. From this work, the Montessori Method was established. This, however, was only the beginning. As noted at the beginning of this article, many of the “newest” educational practices have roots in Montessori’s model. While Montessori education is far too complex of a subject to fully describe here, there are five fundamental components, which capture much of the philosophy. These were revolutionary ideas when Montessori first introduced them; today they are standard practice in most well run classrooms – traditional and Montessori, alike.

Beauty and Atmosphere

  • Natural or soft lighting
  • Conscientious use of color
  • Well-organized/not cluttered
  • Inclusion of plants and/or animals
  • Well-maintained materials and furnishings
  • Decorated spaces that do not create distractions
  • Variety of work spaces: tables, individual desks, floor, counters, etc.
  • Student supplies readily accessible

Structure and Order

  • Checklists/Work Plans
  • Clear expectations for academics and behavior
  • Directly communicated and reinforced routines and procedures
  • Structured assignments which provide models, rubrics, guidelines, and control for error

Freedom with Responsibility

  • Choice in assignments related to level of difficulty and/or method of presentation
  • Development of self-monitoring through use of controls,checklists,planners, etc.
  • Student-led conferences
  • Classroom jobs
  • Morning meeting roles

Reality and Nature

  • Real-world experiences
  • Engagement with the natural world
  • Development of life skills
  • Use of tools appropriate to the task and developmental level

Grace and Courtesy

  • Classroom jobs
  • Responsibility for public space clean-up
  • Classroom Meetings which include Greetings and Acknowledgments
  • Character Strength Development (normalization and valorization)

Many of today’s best practice innovations aren’t innovations at all. The Montessori Method has been educating children this way for 100 years.

 

Krista Taylor