Collaboration: The Tale of a Team

-by Krista Taylor

 

Late one summer night, my teaching partner and I were working frantically at my dining room table. The school year was long over, but as part of my summer work, I had agreed to restructure a major assignment. I had four days to go from a big idea to a finalized document.

I called Beau seeking sympathy. His response was priceless: “Let me help you with that. We have different strengths; it’s what we do. We’re a team.”

Beau had no obligation to assist me, but we are a team, and that’s a powerful concept.

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Collaboration is a critical component of the successful functioning of modern education. Teaching in isolation behind a closed classroom door is no longer an effective model. The demands of accountability, increased rigor, and meeting the needs of each student, require teachers to work together.

Collaboration is not just a buzzword. Documented gains result from well-conducted collaboration.

“The low-income districts and schools that have demonstrated the greatest improvement in student outcomes are generally characterized by deep collaboration between administrators and teachers.”  (Anrig, Greg. “Why Collaboration is Vital to Creating Effective Schools.” The Washington Post. May 2, 2013.)

While there are many forms of collaboration, the longest term, and perhaps most impactful, collaboration comes through teaming.

Gamble is a “team-based school.” We have all kinds of teams: departmental teams, vertical teams, co-teaching teams, building leadership teams, grade-level teams, and community teams that share a common group of students.

And while two (or more) heads are better than one, effective teaming is neither a simple nor an easy process. Simply being part of a team is not the same as collaborating. True collaboration, true teaming, is working together to effect change.

Bruce Tuckman identified a common process that teams cycle through as they become highly functional. It is important to note that these stages are not a linear progression; rather, teams can regularly revisit any of the stages, often triggered by a change or disruption.

Stage 1: Forming.

This is often thought of as a honeymoon period. Individuals are just getting to know each other, and there is little conflict.

When Beau, Kim, and I first became a team, the beginning was easy. Since I was the most experienced member of the team, they mostly just agreed with me. I had to remember to push them to share their ideas and opinions.

 Stage 2: Storming.

Stress increases, arguments arise, and things become more difficult.

My team experienced this when we revamped our grading policy. What began as a philosophical conversation, rapidly developed into a significant conflict. Kim wanted a complete overhaul. Beau was resistant. I served as a mediator between the two. At one point, the conversation grew so hot that Beau had to take a walk to cool off. We ended our discussion that day with no resolution.  The next morning, each of them had drafted a conciliatory plan based on the other person’s perspective. The argument continued, but they had both shifted to arguing for the very thing that they had been against! As soon as I pointed this out, we laughed, and got down to the business of over-hauling our policy.

 Stage 3: Norming. In this stage, cooperation and a focus on task and purpose is apparent.

Once we got rolling as a team, we met weekly to hash out the details of the upcoming week –where each person would be each bell, with which group of students, what content was being taught, and who was responsible for what.  This became routine – a norm. We couldn’t function without it, but with this process in place, we were a well-oiled machine.

 Stage 4: Performing.  This is the optimal level of functioning, and occurs when teams utilize each member’s strengths to work toward shared goals. The above example of Beau’s selflessness in assisting with my summer work was a powerful example of performing. We were a team – we looked out for, and depended on, each other.

 Collaboration is not easy, and, contrary to common belief, it doesn’t save time. Functional teaming takes significant time and energy; however, when teams are willing to work together, the results are better than when individuals work alone, and, as noted in The Washington Post, it is critical to tackling our most challenging issues in education.

 

 

 

The Long Game

-by Jack M. Jose

It was the end of the second Monday in March, the time of year when we are all so focused on spring break and just getting through, that we forget about the “long game” of creating confident, competent students. The Teacher:Teacher mentoring meeting had just begun. The plan is for veteran teachers to light the way with enthusiasm and optimism so new teachers feel supported. Today I looked around the table and I felt sympathy for George Washington examining his troops at Valley Forge. My teachers – ESPECIALLY the veterans – looked defeated and lost.

I made a critical error. I asked, “How’s it going?”

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It was early March. March presents several consecutive 5-day weeks of warmer weather, with the prospect of spring break looming, making teaching all but impossible. In short, the less we ask “How’s it going?” the better we all get along. You’re much better off greeting someone by saying, “It’s nearly Friday!” or “Only 48 days left!” Like Washington’s soldiers, my teachers needed sleep, food, and possibly even a warm blanket.

I should have known better than to ask, really. Recent comprehensive studies show that new teacher attrition is an alarming 17% after 5 years[1].  We know that involving new teachers in communication and decision-making is empowering, and helps to keep teachers in the profession[2]. Support is why we created a mentoring program. The mentors probably knew better than to ask “How’s it going?” in March, a question designed to make young teachers pine for a job waiting tables at Denny’s.

A veteran teacher, Julia Bauer*, spoke up. She quietly offered a litany of woe and exhaustion: restless students, insufficient time for curriculum, field experiences, state testing and more, the details of which echo in all teachers’ experiences. Raised eyebrows and meaningful eye contact around the now-silent table spoke clearly: they all felt the same way.

It is times like these that we have to intentionally work to focus on the “long game.” This term, often applied to politics, applies to any endeavor when a larger goal can only be accomplished after a series of strategic maneuvers and even tactical losses. Education is the ultimate long game. We meet students as children, in mind and body, and, 6 years later, send them into the world as adults. In between, there is a lot of important work to be done. It is hard work, and it can be messy.

I was upset that a mentor was the one to express this note of doom; I should have been thankful. She was articulating what the younger teachers were thinking, and allowing us to feel this way out loud and together. The teaching career is a hard one. Teaching is much like parenting, and March is much like a week of lost nights’ sleep with a colicky infant. One could easily look at March and decide it is not all worth it, because, honestly, if it was March all year long, it might be unbearable.

We are playing the long game. Each discipline conference and corrected assignment is a step toward Commencement. Now we meet parents to discuss grades, and later we will embrace them and talk about college choices. There are disagreements and setbacks, but there will be celebration. It was always going to be hard work; we knew that from the beginning. And it is always going to be worth it in the end.

The mentors probably knew better than to ask “How’s it going?” in March, a question designed to make young teachers pine for a job waiting tables at Denny’s.

I possess an old invitation to an event I missed. Leslee McElrath, a student of mine a decade earlier, was receiving her doctorate in medicine. I was shocked by the invitation to the ceremony, and the reminder about the “long game”. One year I pushed her to write her portfolio, and explicate Shakespeare. Later I checked up on her to verify that she was meeting her potential. When her college was inundated by Hurricane Katrina, other teachers and I sent her a replacement computer. Somewhere in there, by pushing her academically, and supporting her personally, and doing what I considered my job, I left an indelible impression. And she repaid the favor with a simple invitation that profoundly reminded me all the effort was worthwhile.

It’s messy. There will be bad days, sometimes in bunches, for teachers and for students. Perseverance, cooperation, and working together to support each other will guarantee that we will be okay. We are playing a long game.

[1] Gray, Lucinda, and Soheyla Taie. “Public School Teacher Attrition and Mobility in the First Five Years: Results From the First Through Fifth Waves of the 2007–08 Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study.” Public School Teacher Attrition and Mobility in the First Five Years: Results From the First Through Fifth Waves of the 2007–08 Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study (n.d.): n. pag. 1 Apr. 2015. Web. 19 Mar. 2016.

[2] Teacher Retention: Why do Beginning Teachers Remain in the Profession?; Inman, Duane; Marlow, Leslie. Education124.4 (Summer 2004): 605-614.

*All names used with permission.

Make the Most of Spring Break

-by Jack M. Jose

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Spring break is right around the corner, and parents are looking to find the balance between structuring every moment, and losing the entire week to sleeping in and video games. Because it is just a week, there is no worry about losing skills like with “summer slide”, so spring break should be a time for extra rest, reading for pleasure, and practicing skills. Here is a guide to a great week.

If your children are going to be home alone for much of the week, help them set up a schedule for each day, with check boxes for each item (here’s a Google search to useful article and checklists.) Be sure to leave them instructions for calling for help if something goes wrong, and when they should or should not call you at work. Each day should contain one or more of the following:

  • chores that can be accomplished independently, like those described here, with lists by age;
  • instructions for a meal to be prepared independently, based on the skills and responsibility of your child;
  • scheduled “screen” time – video game / t.v. / Youtube, etc. – with a time limit;
  • reading time – with a Saturday trip to the library in preparation*;
  • time to practice a hobby – writing, playing an instrument, knitting/sewing, drawing. These should be done with a plan to accomplish a larger work over the course of the week, like writing a short story, learning a new song, perfecting a certain shot or working on a particular throw.

If you are fortunate enough to be home with your family during the week, and/or can spend time together on the weekends, here is a plan of attack for a successful spring break.

Thursday night: plan your week.

  • Look at the weather forecast and pick at least one “indoor” day and one “outdoor” day
  • Ask your child/children what they would like to do and find a place for it in the schedule

Friday night: welcome to Spring Break! Plan a family / family + friends night to kick off spring break in style.

Indoor days: Here are some great ways to spend time together on a day when the weather is uncooperative.

  • Art museum, (In Cincinnati we are blessed with great affordable arts. The Cincinnati Art Museum has free admission every day, and $4 parking, or take the Metro, route #1);
  • History museum, (The Natural History Museum, Cincinnati History Museum and Children’s Museum are under the same roof);
  • Local Water Works often offer free tours and fascinating exposure to how we provide clean drinking water to a community;
  • Volunteer for a local charity, preparing meals, serving food, sorting clothing and more;
  • Factory tours;
  • Aquarium (discount tickets to the Newport Aquarium can be purchased at Kroger stores.)

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Outdoor days:

  • Unscheduled outdoor play in the yard, (this can be penciled in your calendar almost daily, but should not be the sole plan for spring break week);
  • Outdoor play at a neighborhood park or sports field further from home with supervision as appropriate;
  • Visit a seasonal fruit farm, and pick ingredients for a cooking project, (better for locales further south than Cincinnati);
  • Hike a local trail, or walk between a couple of local historical sites, (find lists at CincinnatiUSA.com or a local tourism board);
  • Visit a local college to introduce the idea of going to college and forming preferences. This can be incorporated into family travel plans as well.
  • Zoo, (Cincinnati Zoo discounted tickets can be purchased at Kroger stores).

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And at night:

  • Game nights are always a hit at my household. We can play a game for four, or invite family members or other friends for a great group experience. Choose your family favorites, or try one of ours:
  • Movie night is a great way to relax after a long day of activity. MovieMom can help pick developmentally appropriate movies while providing thought-provoking discussion questions.

A good mix of structured and unstructured time helps everyone feel rested and fulfilled over spring break. No promises about whether your child will be ready to return to school!

*while these examples are specific to Cincinnati, most towns and cities have similar offerings.

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Real-World Experiences: Solving Problems

-by Jack M. Jose

As the high school English teacher my first year at Gamble Montessori, I was able to put together a memorable and educational field experience

Recording in the "GarageBand" studio - a computer lab.
Recording in the “GarageBand” studio – a computer lab.

with the help of my co-teacher, Tracy Glick. This happened through perseverance and planning, and high student tolerance of changes as we adapted to obstacles.

This was a real-life experience in which students used the recording program GarageBand to create a song that met certain technical qualifications: it had to be 3 to 5 minutes in length, it had to use at least one original sound captured with a microphone, one sound played on an instrument, and one edited loop (pre-recorded sound available in GarageBand.) While some of the students were excited to record a song, several students admitted they joined my intersession because it was the only one they could afford.

How was this a “real life” experience? First, students worked directly with the tools that recording artists use on the computer and at the studio, and used the language of professionals. Second, except for some requirements to explore the functions in GarageBand, I outlined few restrictions on their final product; the final songs were as varied as the individual students. Third, they problem-solved with each other, co-creating, sharing music, teaching each other how to layer and clip sounds, edit and create loops, and more. “Real life” is just that – organic learning and sharing in an environment built to foster a specific activity, often resulting in a larger final product. Each student received a copy of a CD with all of the completed songs, and a cover collage of the artwork they produced to accompany their song.

Ten full days, fifteen students and four locations presented the typical obstacles that arise in planning any experience. Ultimately, we are only limited by our imagination, planning, and effort to make the best possible field experience for students. Well, and the obstacles, of course, some of which are legitimately insurmountable. In that case, we are only limited by our capacity to respond to the situation with optimism, and our willingness to realize that the old plan was a bad idea anyway, and our new idea is much better. Put simply: move on and accept it.

We encountered many obstacles that were particular to our songwriting intersession. Carey’s song disappeared from his computer, despite the automatic backup feature. He had to start over (luckily it was early in the intersession!) One song developed a randomly occurring static sound that Le’a and I were unable to eliminate (we decided it fit the theme of her song: you have to cherish each moment because unexpected events happen.)

Jynn, blessed with a beautiful voice, found herself overcome with nerves and unable to sing in front of her peers (so we arranged for her to record vocals in a separate room, and she recorded a song I still sometimes pull out to hear again.)

One day we were entirely on each others’ nerves and we took a break at a park. An “inside” joke that developed there emerged in one of our “skits” – short unscripted moments at the studio that we included in the album.

In the computer lab, students created their own songs. At the studio, they attended to the serious business of experimenting with the instruments, and interacting with each through the headphones. From the chaos and inexperience, students, only one of whom walked in with any recording experience, created an album of original songs and skits that exceeded the expectations. They were recording artists!

After I had copied the CDs, I gave them to my intersession students as they entered my class. Delron did a double take when I handed him the album. “Wait, I did this? This is me?”

That is the moment we are seeking – genuine pride in a new accomplishment.

Teachers at Gamble Montessori and elsewhere have found many ways to solve the problems that are part and parcel with creating a valuable experience. This attachment lists common obstacles and proposed solutions: Problem-Solving Field Experiences

We know this is not an exhaustive list of problems or suggestions, and we encourage you to list a problem and/or solution not listed above!

Erdkinder – The Fall Camping Experience

 

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-by Krista Taylor

Every year, in the middle of September, I fall a little bit in love with each of my students, while simultaneously experiencing some of the greatest stress and fatigue of the entire school year. Our annual fall camping trip is intense – and it yields profound results.

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Let me be honest. I really don’t like camping . . . at all.  And yet I have camped with my students each September for the past six years. It certainly isn’t “glamping.” It is rustic. And dirty. And stressful. And exhausting.

However, I am certain, beyond a shadow of a doubt, that this annual experience is critical to my students . . . and to me.

At Gamble, every fall, our 7th and 8th grade communities spend 4 days and 3 nights (rain or shine) tent camping, without the benefit of electricity or other creature comforts. We cook all our meals, do all our dishes, and manage all our needs together at the campsite – not a small feat for 55-65 individuals.

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The best way I have to explain the power of this Erdkinder experience is simply to share with you glimpses – in stories and photographs — of this trip. These glimpses provide insight about my students that I never would have gained inside the classroom. The stories below are from different trips with different students – in fact the photos are intentionally of different students than those discussed in the stories, because year after year, this trip seems to draw the same positive qualities out of each group of students.   The powerful moments in each trip seem to be universal experiences.

Almost all of these stories feature students who often struggle with expectations at school, and that is what defines the power of this trip — the opportunity to see students in a different light, one that allows them to shine.

So imagine, if you will . . .

One evening, I was helping a student with significant disabilities on his work packet. I looked up to find William, a rather challenging student, standing beside me.

“Do you want me to work with him, Ms. Taylor?”

“Do you know the difference between biotic and abiotic factors?”

“Yeah. Biotic means living, and abiotic means non-living. I got this, Ms. Taylor!”

The two of them spent the next half hour working quietly side-by-side, on a picnic bench at the edge of the woods.

Joell and Katherine

 

When students were able to choose their own partner for the final leg of the canoe trip, Malik, a popular, 8th grade student chose to wait to pick a partner in order to see who wasn’t getting chosen. Ultimately, he selected an unpopular 7th grade girl, admitting to a teacher later that he did this because, “No one was picking her, and I didn’t want her to feel left out.”

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My tent was next to the tent of a group of girls who were nature-phobic. Over and over again, I was summoned with screeches of, “Ms. Taylor! There’s a spider on our tent!” “Ms. Taylor, Come get this caterpillar!!” “OMG there’s a bug!” The final morning of camp, things had shifted.

Same girls. Same screech, “Ms. Taylor!!”

Then it became different.

“Come see!! We caught a toad!”

toad

 

On the way to the bathhouse one morning, a boy with Down Syndrome silently reached up to hold the hand of another male student. Despite a jeering look from a peer, this 6’2″ 8th grader didn’t say a word, and the two walked all the way down the path holding hands.

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The initiation ceremony is the culminating celebration of the trip, and it is entirely planned by returning students to welcome the new students. Each year, the speeches the students write serve to remind me of the importance of “what we do here.”

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It is the ownership of creating a place where everyone belongs that makes the stress, the exhaustion, and even the dirt, of this non-glamping experience, all worth it.

All real-world experiences provide powerful learning, but there is something about Fall Camp that is unique. In the confluence of the hard work, the time spent outdoors, and the opportunity to intensely build community, lies the magic upon which the rest of the year is built.

 

 

Giving An A

-by Jack M. Jose

Teaching is science and art. Educators must seek wisdom and growth everywhere. I have attended development for business managers, curriculum managers, teachers, data specialists and more, and I am constantly reading business best-sellers and teaching blogs. I cannot anticipate where the next good idea will be discovered.

imgresAt separate trainings in 2010, including the Cincinnati Public Schools ASCEND Institute, I  encountered Rosamund and Benjamin Zander’s provocative book The Art of Possibility: Transforming Professional and Personal Life. In it, renowned conductor and teacher Ben Zanders relates advice on getting the best performance from the musicians in his care on stage and in his classroom.

One chapter transformed evaluation at Gamble for two years: Giving an A. (Check out the “Giving an A” TED talk.) The philosophy jibes with our core belief that all children want to learn. All of us want to be successful at our work and be our best selves. However, obstacles prevent us from reaching our full potential. So to undermine the voices that tell us to be just enough to get by, I followed the Zanders’ advice. I eliminated part of the evaluation.

At that time, the CPS evaluation had two parts: one was based a school-selected goal, such as addressing a specific state report card goal; the other part was based on achieving a self-selected goal. It was for this second goal that I told my staff I was giving them an “A”. In my letter to them, I explained:

So, to take away evaluation anxiety as an impediment to teacher development and calculated risk-taking for the benefit of students, I am giving every teacher I evaluate this year the score of “Exceeded” for their teacher-selected goal. The only catch (and of course there is a catch, and it is a challenging one) is that you write me a letter that meets the following criteria:

  • It must be written in the past tense, as if you wrote it in May 2012 looking back on this school year, starting with the sentence, “Dear Mr. Jose, I got my ‘Exceeded’ rating because …”; it cannot include phrases such as “I will …” or “I intend to …” – this is you looking back on this year;
  • It must explain why you earned that “Exceeded” rating for your goal, and describe not just specific goals met or work completed, but the person you have become based on your effort to meet that goal this year. It is okay to be impressed with that person and the hard work and growth that was demonstrated.
  • You must turn that letter in to me on (or before) your annual or PRE initial conferences. 

I was not sure I was allowed to do this. I promised my staff that I would give them the highest rating on half of their evaluation for writing a letter about what they hoped to achieve, and who they hoped to become. That was NOT the intention of the teacher evaluation system. Or was it? Didn’t we want to unleash our highly trained staff to be the best they could be? My best defense, which ultimately I never had to use, was prepared: “I learned it at the mandatory training. I assume you wanted me to apply what I learned there?”

The reactions were strong. In pre-conferences with me, more than one teacher cried and expressed gratitude at feeling so supported. One teacher cried at feeling unsupported – in retrospect I imagine it was the contrast between this particular action and other events of our time together. I had just established an exceptionally high bar for administrative support for teaching. And I followed through. At the end of the year it was rather simple to enter those scores for those who wrote the letters.

The only catch (and of course there is a catch, and it is a challenging one) is that you write me a letter that meets the following criteria…

Between my request and the end of the year I saw inspired teachers engaging students, inventive lessons, teachers wrestling with data and differentiating in the classroom and working closely with academic coaches to improve instruction. And at the end, I saw a group of professionals who lived into their visions of themselves.

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Jack M. Jose

Student-Led Conferences

 

-by Krista Taylor

Montessori philosophy uses the “Golden Triangle” to represent the strength and importance of the relationship between teachers, students, and parents, but Gamble, like many other urban schools, struggles with lower levels of parent involvement than we’d like.

It is important to remember that many parents experience anxiety about involvement in their child’s school. This may be because of negative school experiences they had themselves, worries that either their child or their parenting skills will be critiqued, or concerns about their ability to understand the academic instruction that is being provided.

I didn’t fully understand the depth of this tension until I attended my first parent-teacher conference in the role of a parent. Despite the many times I had sat on the teacher side of the table, and regardless that my child was doing well, and I understood what the conversation was going to be about, I was nervous.

What exactly would the teacher say about my child? If my child is experiencing challenges, how will that reflect on me? How can I both make a good impression and serve as an advocate for my child?

As a teacher, there are strategies to alleviate some of this discomfort, which then in turn, allows the parent or guardian to engage fully with school staff to support the academic and developmental growth of the child.

Proactive Conference Strategies

  • Begin each interaction with something positive about the child
  • Assume that the parent or guardian is doing the best that they can; however do not assume that they already know how to address concerns.
  • Do not label a child; rather describe the behavior you have observed
  • Open the door to further communication
  • Remember that you are teaching other people’s children; that every student you serve is someone’s child, and they have chosen to share this gift with you.

All schools hold parent-teacher conference nights. In Montessori programs, these look different. Our conferences are Student-Led Conferences, so called because the student leads the meeting. It is the student whose performance is being discussed; therefore the student is in charge of the conversation.

At Gamble, we require all students to hold these conferences at least once, and often twice, a year. This is part of the school contract that our students and parents sign upon enrollment. To manage this, we hold two conference nights each quarter, rather than the required one. Since students lead the conference, multiple conferences happen simultaneously, with teachers checking in at each table to provide information and clarification.

Templates guide students in running the conference. The templates vary according to program, teacher, and grade level, but generally include the following:

  • how to formally introduce your parents and teachers
  • preparing materials for presentation
  • identifying strengths
  • noting concerns
  • setting explicit goals for moving forward.

This process allows the child to self-report on how things are going at school, and to take responsibility both for what is going well, and for what is not. Additionally, when information is shared together, and everyone hears the same message at the same time, it creates a sense of collaboration between the student, the parent, and the teacher – strengthening that “Golden Triangle.”

It is yet another component of “what we do here,” and another way to develop a school culture of belonging. This is illustrated by the conference we had with Deon and his mother last spring.

Deon had been highly disruptive in the classroom – he had more than 40 logged disciplinary offenses for the year. This was a difficult conference to hold; it was challenging to find anything positive to say. It could easily have turned into a conflict, but because of the way we conduct conferences, the outcome was one of unified support. Deon’s mother ended our meeting with a request for a group hug, and with these powerful words, “We are all on the same team – Team Deon.”

Parents can be a teacher’s greatest allies. Every interaction a teacher has with students’ parents or guardians can serve as an opportunity to strengthen the relationship, even if the conversation is a difficult one.   Conference nights can be powerful for all parties involved; never miss an opportunity to connect with a child’s family, to be a member of that child’s “team.”

 

Real World Experiences / Field Experiences Overview

-by Jack M. Jose

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Students exploring a river on a school day.

Summer 2014, I was walking to a speaking engagement at the Westwood library when a car pulled into the driveway in front of me. Two young men stepped out. Both had been in my class and my songwriting intersession 5 years earlier. The driver, Devon, was the type of student who would good-naturedly accept your correction on his behavior, and would apologize and commit to self-improvement. However, he would then, after an hour or a couple of days, continue right along making the same mistakes. Course failures caught up to him and he dropped out of school without a plan to support himself or continue his education.

When Devon got out of the car, he greeted me heartily, “I wanted to thank you, Mr. Jose.”

I reflected on the ways I felt I had failed him: how I sat through conferences where I pointed out his weaknesses and called for improvement without acknowledging his strengths, how I was unable to figure out how to keep him focused, how I failed to make him to see the importance of education, and the fact that he left the school without earning a diploma. I genuinely felt that his thanks was unwarranted.

“Mr. Jose, you guys never gave up on me, and you let me know I could be something once I put my mind to it. Oh, and remember the song intersession? I think about that a lot. And white-water rafting? I wish school could have been like that all the time.”

Devon’s last comment demonstrates the powerful nature of experiential learning. Years after he left his formal education, he remembered positively two events with us: two spring “mini-courses” that we call intersessions. The songwriting intersession, and a white water rafting and mountain ecology intersession, had created permanent positive associations with school. He successfully completed the kind of academic work in those events that he struggled to complete during the rest of the school year. These intersession activities kept him engaged and motivated, and he clearly required more of that then we could provide.

A thorough education acquaints a student with many disciplines, of course, but it must do more than that. At Gamble Montessori, we incorporate field experiences to deepen students’ understanding of the world outside the classroom. Field experiences are improved by having as many of the following structural components as is practical:

Components of a Successful Field Experience:

  • learning with experts in the field (including passionate teachers);
  • cover sheet / cycle plan that details the “theme” of what students are learning, captures the “big idea” and key questions to be considered during the study;
  • intense advance preparation
    • teaching about what to expect
    • planning details of the trip together
    • providing a complete checklist of all the work to be accomplished
  • related reading(s) and a seminar (formal guided discussion on topics related to the experience)
  • kickoff and culminating ceremonies or activites to add to the sense that this is a special event, set off from other instruction;
  • community service component, preferably related to the focus of the seminar;
  • a cooperative game to help foster a sense of camaraderie and accomplishment among  participants;
  • culminating project – some permanent keepsake / totem (for my songwriting intersession, every student got the “album” of our collected songs).

Jack M. Jose

Valorization of the Adolescent

 

-by Krista Taylor

The human personality . . . must be strengthened in his principles by moral training and he must also have practical ability in order to face the difficulties of life. Men with hands Slide10and no head, and men with head and no hands are equally out of place in the modern community.  –Montessori

While there are many things that secondary Montessori education is, and at least an equal number of things that it isn’t, it is these words that perhaps encapsulate best the heart of the work. Montessori broadly defined the development of the realms of both the head and the hands as “valorization.” More specifically, this is the development of: joy, optimism, confidence, dignity, self-discipline, initiative, independence, helpfulness, mindfulness, and the ability to work with others.

Valorization is a process, not a product. As such, it is difficult to measure and to track in the way that so much of education is expected to be documented today. Rather, it is caught in glimpses that may at first be fleeting, but which grow and strengthen over time. I was fortunate to catch one of those fleeting glimpses while grading essays in which students argued whether their academics, behavior, and leadership indicated that they were ready for promotion to the next grade.

Marcus is one of my more challenging students. He came to Gamble Montessori a year ago from an alternate program for students with significant behavioral needs; therefore it was not surprising that things haven’t been smooth sailing. In his promotion essay, Marcus wrote, in part:

“I am kind of proud of my grades because compared to last year I can see I have grown stronger academically. My second quarter grades were kind of disappointing because I did worse than first quarter. My grades are not perfect, but I will continue to improve so that I can be promoted. My behavior, to be honest, is not very good. I have had lots of attitude problems, meltdowns, suspensions, and other consequences that come from my behavior. I also have made lots of improvement from last year, but improvement or not, I understand that the kind of behavior I show is not acceptable at all. I know I have the potential and skills to make good decisions when I am angry. I’m not sure if I am a leader to be honest. I guess I showed leadership at Fall Camp. I was able to help people who had their canoes flipped over. I also stepped up when I offered to clean up some things at the end of camp. I showed a big leadership role when a friend’s mother died. I decided to be with him as much as I could to support him and to make sure he knew he did not have to go through it alone. In my recent group project, I showed great leadership by helping and making sure my partner got comfortable with our project. So I guess I am a good leader, which is also a great reason why I should be promoted.”

In this brief writing, where Marcus seems to be convincing even himself of his personal growth, there is evidence of optimism, confidence, dignity, self-discipline, initiative, independence, helpfulness, and the ability to work with others. Marcus is in the process of becoming valorized. This did not occur arbitrarily; the entirety of a secondary Montessori program is built intentionally around this goal. Secondary Montessori programs have many avenues through which valorization occurs.

Components include:

  • a sense of belonging created through daily morning meetings, a practice of sharing acknowledgment, and care-taking of the environment
  • Weekly goal setting, self-reflection and time-management skills
  • Field experiences where students engage in personal challenge, cooperative team building, and finding awe in the world around them
  • Academics that are cross-curricular, connect to big idea themes, and nurture interest and engagement

Valorization is what results over time when students are immersed in these experiences on a regular basis.

So, yes, Marcus, I, too, think that you are capable of being a great leader, and I have been blessed to serve as one of your guides through your process of transformation. Witnessing the emergence of valorization is the greatest joy of teaching.

 

Secondary Montessori — New Curriculum Rooted in Old Pedagogy

-by Krista Taylor

The secondary Montessori movement was essentially begun in the mid 1990s with the formation of Clark Montessori School  (Cincinnati, OH) and The Hershey Farm School Adolescent Program. (Huntsburg, OH) Today there are an estimated 400 Montessori adolescent programs worldwide – this is miniscule in proportion to a total of more than 20,000 Montessori programs overall. Currently there are only 2 American Montessori Society affiliated secondary Montessori training programs for teachers – Cincinnati Montessori Secondary Teacher Education Program– through which both Jack and I earned our credential – and Houston Montessori Center, which has locations in both Texas and California.

It is exciting to be a part of something that remains in the process of self-creation. While secondary Montessori education was something that Maria Montessori envisioned, she did not develop a secondary program, herself, instead leaving it to future generations to do so.

Those of us working in Montessori secondary programs today are that future generation of whom Montessori spoke. Turning her philosophy into comprehensive practice is our “big work.”

Montessori identified four distinct planes of development: birth to age 6, ages 6 to 12, ages 12 to 18, and ages 18-24. Her work initially focused on the first two planes; however, during the 1920s, she began studying the needs of the adolescent. Her philosophy on the educational needs of children in this third plane of development can be found in her book, From Childhood to Adolescence, which was first published in 1948. In that text, she writes:

“The need that is so keenly felt for a reform of secondary schools concerns not only an educational, but also a human and social problem. Schools, as they are today, are adapted neither to the needs of adolescents nor to the times in which we live. Society has not only developed into a state of utmost complication and extreme contrasts, but it has now come to a crisis in which the peace of the world and civilization itself are threatened. More than to anything else it is due to the fact that the development of man himself has not kept pace with that of his external environment.”

It is almost eerie how resonant her words remain today.

Montessori had a vision for a more developmentally appropriate model of learning; she referred to adolescents as “Erdkinder,” or “Earth’s children” because she believed that they were best served by working outside the classroom in a farm-like natural environment. While this is unrealistic in light of the many requirements of modern education, the pioneers in the secondary Montessori movement have used this philosophy as a foundation, and have outlined curricula for effective Montessori programs that also align with state and district academic requirements. The fundamental elements are outlined below. Many of these overlap with what would be expected in any Montessori classroom, while others are specific to a secondary program.

Establishment of a peaceful community

  • daily student-led community meetings
  • fostering a sense of belonging through communal learning and collaborative work
  • multi-age groupings in classrooms
  • modeling and instruction in grace and courtesy

Emphasis on the Nobility of Work

  • implementation of over-arching developmental themes
  • cross-curricular integration
  • differentiation and choice of work
  • uninterrupted work periods
  • seminar discussions which explore big themes, differences in perspectives, and complex issues of our time
  • student-led conferences
  • intentional fostering of executive functioning tasks: time management, organization, decision making, self-reflection, and goal setting

Connections to Cosmic Education

In this model, the teacher serves as a guide to the community of learners. She supports the valorization (growth of positive qualities) of the adolescent, demonstrates wisdom, caring, and thoughtfulness, fosters cooperation and collaboration, and is responsive to the many needs of her students.

Secondary Montessori education is a burgeoning practice. One that by many accounts was initiated a mere 25 years ago, but which is rapidly gaining momentum. It is the type of instruction that so many of us have been seeking – teachers, students, and families alike.